Model from multiple joined tables

class Atk4\Data\Model\Join

Sometimes model logically contains information that is stored in various places in the database. Your database may want to split up logical information into tables for various reasons, such as to avoid repetition or to better optimize indexes.

Join Basics

Agile Data allows you to map multiple table fields into a single business model by using joins:

$jContact = $user->join('contact');
$jContact->hasOne('Country', ['model' => [Country::class]]);

This code will load data from two tables simultaneously and if you do change any of those fields they will be update in their respective tables. With SQL the load query would look like this:

    u.username, c.address, c.county, c.country_id
    (select name from country where = c.country_id) country
from user u
join contact c on = u.contact_id
where = $id

If driver is unable to query both tables simultaneously, then it will load one record first, then load other record and will collect fields together:

$user = $user->load($id);
$contact = $contact->load($user->get('contact_id'));

When saving the record, Joins will automatically record data correctly:

insert into contact (address, county, country_id) values ($, $, $);
@join_c = last_insert_id();
insert into user (username, contact_id) values ($, @join_c)

Strong and Weak joins

When you are joining tables, then by default a strong join is used. That means that both records are not-nullable and when adding records, they will both be added and linked.

Weak join is used if you do not really want to modify the other table. For example it can be used to pull country information based on user.country_id but you wouldn’t want that adding a new user would create a new country:

$user->addField('country_id', ['type' => 'integer']);
$jCountry = $user->join('country', ['weak' => true, 'prefix' => 'country_']);
$jCountry->addField('default_currency', ['prefix' => false]);

After this you will have the following fields in your model:

  • username

  • country_id

  • country_code [readOnly]

  • country_name [readOnly]

  • default_currency [readOnly]

Join relationship definitions

When defining joins, you need to outline two fields that must match. In our earlier examples, we the master table was “user” that contained reference to “contact”. The condition would look like this In some cases, however, a relation should be reversed:

$jContact = $user->join('contact.user_id');

This will result in the following join condition: The first argument to join defines both the table that we need to join and can optionally define the field in the foreign table. If field is set, we will assume that it’s a reverse join.

Reverse joins are saved in the opposite order - primary table will be saved first and when id of a primary table is known, foreign table record is stored and ID is supplied. You can pass option ‘masterField’ to the join() which will specify which field to be used for matching. By default the field is calculated like this: foreignTable . ‘_id’. Here is usage example:

$jCreditCard = $user->join('credit_card', [
    'prefix' => 'cc_',
    'masterField' => 'default_credit_card_id',
$jCreditCard->addField('integer'); // creates cc_number
$jCreditCard->addField('name'); // creates cc_name

Master field can also be specified as an object of a Field class.

There are more options that you can pass inside join(), but those are vendor-specific and you’ll have to look into documentation for sql\Join and mongo\Join respectfully.

Method Proxying

Once your join is defined, you can call several methods on the join objects, that will create fields, other joins or expressions but those would be associated with a foreign table.


same as Model::addField but associates field with foreign table.


same as Model::join but links new table with this foreign table.


same as Model::hasOne but reference ID field will be associated with foreign table.


same as Model::hasMany but condition for related model will be based on foreign table field and Reference::$theirField will be set to $foreignTable . ‘_id’.


same as Model::hasOne but the data will be stored in a field inside foreign table.

Not yet implemented !


same as Model::hasMany but the data will be stored in a field inside foreign table.

Not yet implemented !

Create and Delete behavior

Updating joined records are simple, but when it comes to creation and deletion, there are some conditions. First we look at dependency. If master table contains id of a foreign table, then foreign table record must be created first, so that we can store its ID in a master table. If the join is reversed, the master record is created first and then foreign record is inserted along with the value of master id.

When it comes to deleting record, there are three possible conditions:

  1. [delete_behaviour = cascade, reverse = false]

    If we are using strong join and master table contains ID of foreign table, then foreign master table record is deleted first. Foreign table record is deleted after. This is done to avoid error with foreign constraints.

  2. [deleteBehaviour = cascade, reverse = true]

    If we are using strong join and foreign table contains ID of master table, then foreign table record is deleted first followed by the master table record.

  3. [deleteBehaviour = ignore, reverse = false]

    If we are using weak join and the master table contains ID of foreign table, then master table is deleted first. Foreign table record is not deleted.

  4. [deleteBehaviour = setnull, reverse = true]

    If we are using weak join and foreign table contains ID of master table, then foreign table is updated to set ID of master table to NULL first. Then the master table record is deleted.

Based on the way how you define join an appropriate strategy is selected and Join will automatically decide on $deleteBehaviour and $reverse values. There are situations, however when it’s impossible to determine in which order the operations have to be performed. A good example is when you define both master/foreign fields.

In this case system will default to “reverse=false” and will delete master record first, however you can specify a different value for “reverse”.

Sometimes it’s also sensible to set deleteBehaviour = ignore and perform your own delete operation yourself.

Implementation Detail

Joins are implemented like this:

  • all the fields that has ‘joinName’ property set will not be saved into default table by default driver

  • join will add either beforeInsert or afterInsert hook inside your model. When save is executed, it will execute additional query to update foreign table.

  • while $model->getId() stores the ID of the main table active record, $join->id stores ID of the foreign record and will be used when updating.

  • option ‘deleteBehaviour’ is ‘cascade’ for strong joins and ‘ignore’ for weak joins, but you can set some other value. If you use “setnull” value and you are using reverse join, then foreign table record will not be updated, but value of the foreign field will be set to null.

class Atk4\Data\Persistence\Sql\Join

SQL-specific joins

When your model is associated with SQL-capable driver, then instead of using Join class, the Persistence\Sql\Join is used instead. This class is designed to improve loading technique, because SQL vendors can query multiple tables simultaneously.

Vendors that cannot do JOINs will have to implement compatibility by pulling data from collections in a correct order.

Implementation Details

  • although some SQL vendors allow update .. join .. syntax, this will not be used. That is done to ensure better compatibility.

  • when field has the ‘joinName’ option set, trying to convert this field into expression will prefix the field properly with the foreign table alias.

  • join will be added in all queries

  • strong join can potentially reduce your data-set as it exclude table rows that cannot be matched with foreign table row.

Specifying complex ON logic

When you’re dealing with SQL drivers, you can specify Persistence\Sql\Expression for your “on” clause:

$stats = $user->join('stats', [
    'on' => $user->expr('year({}) = _st.year'),
    'foreignAlias' => '_st',

You can also specify 'on' => false then the ON clause will not be used at all and you’ll have to add additional where() condition yourself.

foreignAlias can be specified and will be used as table alias and prefix for all fields. It will default to '_' . $this->foreignTable. Agile Data will also resolve situations when multiple tables have same first character so the prefixes will be named ‘_c’, ‘_c_2’, ‘_c_3’ etc.

Additional arguments accepted by SQL joins are:

  • ‘kind’ - will be “inner” for strong join and “left” for weak join, but you can specify other kind of join, for example, “right”’.